Education in Early Childhood

preschool

In this day and age, many children in my generation attend a preschool or some form of learning center. It is a big norm in the U.S. due to multiple reasons, like having both working parents. These were places that children around ages 3 and 4 could go and start learning before turning 5 and heading off to kindergarten. Some of these programs also include 4 year old and 5 year old in the same school. In this blog I’m going to talk about the variations in education.

There are two variations in types of schools: child-centered kindergarten and Montessori schools.

Child-centered kindergarten puts  big emphasizes in all aspect of a child, that being their physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development. This school is focused on the child’s learning style and holding a great empathize on their needs and interest. It has a very nurturing approach. It is a very hands on approach and wants the child the develop fully and in every area needed for them. This is seen in their three principles:

  1. each child follows a unique developmental pattern
  2. children learn best through firsthand experiences with people and materials
  3. play is extremely important

Some activities that these programs will present would be adventuring, discovering, practice in speech, experiments, and overall trying new things that would interest the child. These programs help the development of 4 to 5 year old.

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Another type of schooling is Montessori schools. These type of education was developed by Maria Montessori, an Italian physician-turned-educator who crafted a revolutionary approach to young children’s education at the beginning of the 20th century. (Santrock, 2011, pg. 267) In this approach to education children are given a good amount of independence and have the ability to make choices on their own individual activities. The teacher is only there to act more as a mediator in their independence. Here the teacher will show the child how to do the activities, show different ways to create and explore, and offer help if the child requests it. This type of schooling helps teach thinking and making their own decisions at a young age, which leads to better problem-solving skills and management in the future. Montessori schools are still less known then child-centered kindergarten, but are starting to find a rise in them amount appearing in the U.S.

montessori

Between the two variations, developmentalist will favor Montessori schools, but believe it to limit children’s social development.

Either way, researchers have found that children learn best from a more hands-on education. Also, a better strategy for educating the young is the let them learn and develop at their own pace, since we have seen time and time again is that children learn at different speeds.

References – Articles and Images:

Santrock, J. W. (2011). Children (13th ed.). New York : McGraw-Hill Humanities.

Athens Montessori [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2017, from http://athensmontessori.com/

St. Paul’s Child Care Center [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2017, from http://www.stpaulschildcare.org/pre-kindergarten-dinos.html

Children’s Nest [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2017, from http://www.childrensnestofmanateepreschool.com/day-care-preschool

 

 

Prenatal Development

very cute human!!!

Babies are probably the cutest thing on this planet, besides puppies. Just like this adorable baby who’s picture I snagged off the internet, they can’t help but be inherently cute.

Ever stopped to think what is going on in the tummies of these women who are carrying these precious babies? I haven’t really either, not until I found out one of my dearest friends is having a kid and is forcing me to be there in the delivery room when she has her baby girl. She updates me all the time about the development of the baby and perfect timing for her since I am taking my child psychology class where I can help her learn new things that she hasn’t found out yet too.

So, until I can tell you about that wonderful birthing experience, I’ll inform you guys of what happens to that cute baby from conception to birth.

The time from fertilization (after conception) and till the moment the baby is out of the womb is the time when a lot of development is happening inside the belly, which we refer to it as prenatal development. This usually lasts for 38 weeks. It sometimes can be more or sometimes can be less since not all pregnancies go through the exact same time period.

This time can be split into three periods: germinal, embryonic, and fetal.

The germinal period happens two week period since conception. At this time the egg is called a zygote. This period involves the creation of the zygote, massive cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.

germinal period

The next period is the embryonic period. The embryonic period occurs from 2 to 8 weeks after the fertilization of the egg. In this period the egg goes from being a zygote to an embryo, which is when the mass number of cells become distinct to this one individual. In this period the you have the formation of the neural tube, which turns into the central nervous system, development of the head and features that come along with it, buds start to appear that will end up being the arms and the legs, and the development of basic organs. There is no sex distinction at the time of this period.

embryonic stage

The final stage if the fetal stage. Here the embryo will now be known as a fetus. This time of development begins at the 9th week and will continue until birth, which makes it the longest period of development. In this stage, systems and organs that began to develop in the embryonic stage continue until complete development. The neural tube now develops into the brain and the spinal cord (central nervous system.) Also at this time do you see the sex organs begin to differentiate (XX, XY, or other variations.)

fetal period

Like I stated before, each pregnancy does not follow the EXACT same pattern, but they are relatively similar. Any differences can be due to problems of formation of certain organs or systems within the body. An example of this would be neural tube defects.

If you want to watch a more quick and condense video on prenatal development you can watch Alexander Tsiaras’s, a photographer, painter, and journalist, Ted Talk called “Conception to Birth – visualized

References – Articles and Images:

Tsiaras, Alexander. “Conception to Birth – visualized.” TED. April 2017. Lecture

Santrock, J. W. (2011). Children (13th ed.). New York : McGraw-Hill Humanities.

Kendra Cherry – Reviewed by a board-certified physician. (n.d.). Explore the Stages of Prenatal Development. Retrieved April 4, 2017, from https://www.verywell.com/stages-of-prenatal-development-2795073

Cochard, L. R. (n.d.). Embryology [The embryonic period ]. Retrieved April 4, 2017, from https://www.netterimages.com/embryonic-period-ithe-early-embryonic-period-unlabeled-embryology-john-a-craig-2760.html

LIndsey, M. (n.d.). Human Development – Beginnings [Fetal period ]. Retrieved April 4, 2017, from http://mollylindsey.weebly.com/beginnings.html

Hall, J. (2017, April 15). Cutest Newborn Baby Photos [Baby wrapped in towel ]. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from http://valenbutac.info/cutest-newborn-baby-photos/

 

 

Does the perfect mom even exist?

perfect-mom

So, while I was skimming for topics to talk about in my blog I came across a article about mom shaming. It was really interesting to read since it is definitely something I see a lot with women today. The biggest person judging you on how you raise your kids (as a mom) is other moms!

The article was written by a organization called CT Working Moms, which has a movement going on this topic. In this article one mother in particular talked about the realities and hardships of judging other moms. She admits that she has done, but, in her eyes, there is way to overcome this.

Everyone judges one another and it is just a natural thing. This mom believes that by training yourself to change your negative, judgmental to positive, understanding thoughts then it would definitely benefit mothers and the world in general. The writer talks about how it is more easy and socially acceptable for us to judge. If you see one mom do it and you follow the same there becomes a group where you at least know you are not the outcast like the mom you are judging.

There is even a movement ran by some mothers called the “Campaign for Judgement-Free Motherhood.” Their slogan is the love more and judge less. They have articles on moms confessing about things they feel guilty about or just a confession of how hard being a mom is. They also have official work writers who create article on topics like mental health, breast feeding, and more! If you are interested in reading these articles or want more information you can them here on their website.

One of my favorite moms who has her own YouTube channel and who I always see on Facebook is Kristina Kuzmic. I believe she currently has three children (one teen, one preteen, and a toddle) and she makes these videos to help other parents when it comes to parenting. She is mom who calls out the fact that parenting isn’t perfect and for the most part your life is just so messy and crazy. I love watching her video

Here is one of her videos where she brought in her kid’s pediatrician to let parents know that they don’t have to be this ideal of “perfect.” : “From a pediatrician: You don’t need to be perfect!

So to answer my question from the beginning, it is no! There are no perfect moms and there are no perfect, one way to raise every single child out there. Children are different and moms are different too.

And as a take home note for all moms who think they are not good enough, here is another video from Kristina with a personal story of her trials as a divorced mother dealing with depression called “Good Enough

References:

Moms, C. W. (2014, September 03). Why Do Moms Judge Other Moms? Retrieved April 4, 2017, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ct-working-moms/why-do-moms-judge-other-moms_b_5754380.html

Kristina Kuzmic. (n.d). Home [YouTube Channel]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/user/stickycook/about

Why I’m terrified for my daughter [Digital image]. (2016, May 26). Retrieved April 4, 2017, from http://barre-bella.com/tag/perfect-mom/

The Effects of Spanking

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Hey guys!

In this blog I am going to talk about a topic that has gotten very controversial recently and a lot of people are more against now then ever. That topic is SPANKING.

Now I know anyone reading this has gotten a “spanking”, “whooping”, or what my parents called them, a “popping.” I didn’t get a lot growing up, mostly because I was tiny enough to hide in small places and cry my eyes out telling my dad not to whoop me, but it didn’t stop him for threatening me and my brother if we were acting up.

In this day in age the views of spanking have changed, but by how much? In 2014, a study was done to find out attitudes towards spanking based off people’s gender, age, and education. Their results show that 65% of women believe that it’s “sometimes necessary to give a child a “good, hard spanking”, which is 22% lower than their views from 1986. For men, in 2014, 76% agreed with the same idea, whereas in 1986 it was 84%

This study also goes further to talk about some negative affects on children when it comes to spanking. According to , who did the study, they found that spanking has been linked with delinquency, anti-social behavior, and substance abuse. They believe that more positive outcomes will appear if using other methods of discipline that involve communication with the child.

My stance on this is that there are other ways to discipline your kids besides spanking them. I don’t believe in using a belt because I see it as a more of a way to scare your kid and I don’t know why you want your kid to be terrified of you. I also, can’t say that I wouldn’t pop my kid like on the mouth (which my mom did) or on the butt with my hand. It would depend on the situation, like say my child were to hit me in the face. Would a time out be good in letting my child understand that what they did was wrong?

In my opinion no, but something a lot of people need to realize is that each each is not going to respond the same to certain discipline styles. Some kids learn from spanking, some kids don’t (which in go into the positive and negative effects of spanking.) There are also so kids that learn from a time out, but then others don’t. Kids aren’t the same so the way we raise shouldn’t always be the same.

A good reference for other ways to discipline children instead of spanking is the book 1,2,3 Magic, which was recommended to me by my old abnormal psychology professor.

References

Attitudes Toward Spanking. (n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2017, from       https://www.childtrends.org/indicators/attitudes-toward-spanking/

Study; Spanking Child Linked With Same Negative Outcome As Abuse [Digital image]. (2016, April 26). Retrieved April 3, 2017, from http://abc13.com/family/study-spanking-child-linked-with-same-outcome-as-abuse/1312016/

 

Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

Being a parent or thinking about your future as a soon to be parent can be difficult, mostly when you have to think about how you will discipline/raise your kids. “Do I want to be the fun mom or the hateful mom” or “Do I want to be the cool dad or the mean dad.” You want to be able to raise your kid with the right set of moral and values while they also know that you love them. Diana Baumrind, a clinical and developmental psychologist, came up with 4 parenting styles. These are styles that you more than likely fit into at least one of them. There are:

  • Authoritarian parenting
  • Authoritative parenting
  • Neglectful parenting
  • Indulgent parenting

Authoritarian parenting style is a more controlling and demanding parenting style. You have rules that are set and unchanging, which your kid must follow. There is no negotiating and everything you say is how it goes. This is the style where there is more spanking done by the parents. These parents usually say “my way of the highway” or “do what I saw or else.” This also shows how sometimes this parenting style can be more aggressive and full or rage. Some consequences for child due to this parenting style would be that they would be low self esteem, lack of initiative, and bad communication skills due to lack of communication from parents.

Authoritative parenting style is still in that demanding and controlling group like Authoritarian, but there is more leniency in this type of style. These parents want their child be able to practice their independence, but in small doses and where the parents are still able to control or put limits how much independence they can show. There is a lot more communication in this style of parenting and the ability to negotiate with the parent. Instead of the whole idea of “because I say so,” authoritative discipline using reasoning. They are more affectionate and supportive while they discipline. There are a lot of benefits to the child in this parenting. A couple of benefits would be more academic success which comes from achievement-oriented, are less violent, more cooperative with adults, and more sociable.

Neglectful parenting style is when a parent is not responsive in the raising of their child. They are overall not aware of their children needs because they are not involved in their lives. This can be from minor things to extreme. An example would be offering a snack for your when they come home from school hungry (minor) to not caring for your child’s health and eating habits at all (extreme.) Children with parents who use this parenting style are more likely to have low self-esteem, more susceptible to delinquency, likely to have an addiction, and increased risk of suicide behavior.

Indulgent parenting style is the parenting style where the parents are highly involved in their child’s life, but make few rules or demands. This is your “I wanna be your friend” parent. With being their friend means never disciplining them and letting them get away with whatever they do. An example of this would be a parent allowing their child to take a toy away from another child with intervening becuase they believe their child should be able to do so or that it is the child’s toy to begin with. Children with parents who are indulgent (other sites might call it permissive) are usually unable to control their behaviors. They are use to getting what they want at home, so they will expect when they are outside the home or away from the parent.

Based off my feelings and values as a person I believe that the authoritative parenting style is one that can benefit the child the most. Yes, it is your job as a parent to raise your child to represent the values you hold dear and to make sure they are successful, but you won’t get that by being their dictator. Children, starting from a small age, need love and support. At first the only way for them to receive that is through family. If they don’t receive it from their family then down the road they will have a hard time getting it from others.

References:

F. (2017, January 04). 4 Baumrind Parenting Styles. Retrieved April 03, 2017, from https://www.parentingforbrain.com/4-baumrind-parenting-styles/ 

Writer, L. G. (2012, December 27). Examples of Each of the Four Parenting Styles. Retrieved April 03, 2017, from http://oureverydaylife.com/examples-four-parenting-styles-1346.html

Santrock, J. W. (2011). Children (13th ed.). New York : McGraw-Hill Humanities.

 

My first blog!!

[;rsdr

Hello everyone!

This is my first time blogging, so I am excited and nervous at the same time. I don’t if anyone besides my psych professor (you rock) will be reading this, but it is still something I have to do and if you do find yourself reading this I hope you get something informative out of this.

This blog will be used to talk about many different topics dealing with children and using the psych perspective to analyze  how they grow and develop.  I already have some topics in mind like the development of children from conception to infancy, parenting styles, co-sleeping, language, and many, many more.

So, I hope you enjoy!